To systematically review studies that examined the effectiveness of wrist guards in preventing wrist injuries among snowboarders.
MEDLINE (1966-March 2005), EMBASE (1988-March 2005), Cochrane (2005 Issue 1), Sport Discus (1975-March 2005) were searched using variations of the term “snowboard.” PubMED was searched for the year 2005 to capture any recently published studies not yet indexed in MEDLINE. The reference lists of included studies and conference proceedings were also searched.
Studies were included if the number of wrist injuries between wrist guarded and unguarded snowboarders could be ascertained. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), cohort studies, and case-control studies were included. Six studies were included.
Information regarding study design, patient characteristics, wrist guard characteristics, data source (for cohort and case-control studies), and results (type and severity of injury, compliance, and adverse events) were extracted. Data were extracted by one reviewer and checked by a second reviewer.
Data from RCTs and cohort studies were expressed as relative risks with odds ratios presented for case-control studies. The risk of wrist injury (RR: 0.23; 95% CI: 0.13, 0.41), wrist fracture (RR: 0.29; 95% CI: 0.10, 0.87), and wrist sprain (RR: 0.17; 95% CI: 0.07, 0.41) was significantly reduced with the use of wrist guards. Among the case-control studies, wrist guards significantly lowered the odds of sustaining a wrist injury (OR: 0.46; 95% CI: 0.35, 0.62). In an RCT, the risk ratio suggested wrist guards protect the shoulder (RR: 0.22; 95% CI: 0.01, 4.60). Nonexperimental data suggested the possibility that wrist guards may increase the risk of finger and elbow-shoulder injuries.
Wrist guards reduce the risk of wrist injuries among snowboarders. For every 50 snowboarders who were a wrist guard, one wrist injury will be averted. Future research should focus on determining the optimal type of wrist guard and if they increase the risk of other upper extremity injuries.
From the *Alberta Research Centre for Child Health Evidence, Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine & Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada (K.R.); †Departments of Paediatrics and Community Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada (B.H.); and ‡Faculty of Medicine & Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada (L.H.F.); Royal Alexandra Hospital, Edmonton, Canada (L.H.F.); and Pan Alberta Coalition for Cellphone-Free Driving, Edmonton, Canada (L.H.F.).
Submitted for publication December 23, 2005; accepted January 27, 2007.
This work was completed in part while Brent Hagel was with the Alberta Centre for Injury Control & Research, Department of Public Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine & Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada.
Reprints: Kelly Russell, Room 9429 Aberhart Center One, 11402 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2J3.