and objectives Patients with CKD are at risk of hospital-acquired complications (HACs). We sought to determine the association of preventable HACs with mortality, length of stay (LOS), and readmission.
Design, setting, participants, & measurements
All adults hospitalized from April of 2003 to March of 2008 in Alberta were characterized by kidney function and occurrence of preventable HACs. CKD was defined by eGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 and/or albumin-to-creatinine ratio >3–30 mg/mmol for >3 months in the time frame from 365 to 90 days before admission. Regression models examined the association of HACs with outcomes.
Of 536,549 hospitalizations, 8.5% (n=45,733) had CKD and 9.8% of patients with CKD had one or more potentially preventable HAC. In patients with potentially preventable HACs, proportions of death within index hospitalization and from discharge to 90 days were 17.7% and 6.8%, respectively. In patients with CKD, comparing with those hospitalizations without potentially preventable HACs, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) of mortality during index hospitalization and from hospital discharge to 90 days in patients with one or more preventable HAC was 4.67 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 4.17 to 5.22) and 1.08 (95% CI, 0.94 to 1.25), respectively. Median incremental LOS in patients with one or more preventable HAC was 9.86 days (95% CI, 9.25 to 10.48). The OR for readmission with preventable HAC was 1.24 (95% CI, 1.15 to 1.34). In a cohort with and without CKD, the adjusted ORs of mortality during index hospitalization in patients with CKD and no preventable HACs, patients without CKD and with preventable HACs, and patients with CKD and preventable HACs were 2.22 (95% CI, 1.69 to 2.94), 5.26 (95% CI, 4.98 to 5.55), and 9.56 (95% CI, 7.23 to 12.56), respectively (referenced to patients without CKD or preventable HACs).
Preventable HACs are associated with higher mortality, incremental LOS, and greater risk of readmission, especially in people with CKD. Targeted strategies to reduce complications should be a high priority.