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Challenges in a Technology-Based Cancer Pain Management Program Among Asian American Breast Cancer Survivors

Im, Eun-Ok PhD, MPH, FAAN; Ji, Xiaopeng PhD; Kim, Sangmi PhD; Chee, Eunice BSE; Bao, Ting MD, DABMA, MS; Mao, Jun J. MD, MSCE; Chee, Wonshik PhD

CIN: Computers, Informatics, Nursing: May 2019 - Volume 37 - Issue 5 - p 243–249
doi: 10.1097/CIN.0000000000000503

This paper aims to discuss the challenges faced during a pilot study that tested a technology-based cancer pain management program among Asian American survivors of breast cancer and provide directions for future technology-based interventions for racial and ethnic minorities. Data consisting of research diaries and meeting minutes underwent content analysis to extract themes that reflected the challenges. The challenges included those related to (1) diversities within the population of Asian American survivors of breast cancer; (2) survivors' treatment and healing process; (3) Internet resources from the participants' countries of origin; (4) building trust between researchers and participants/gatekeepers; (5) fidelity of the intervention; and (6) cultural sensitivity. Future design and implementation of technology-based programs for racial and ethnic minorities must consider these challenges.

Author Affiliations: School of Nursing, Duke University (Drs Im, Kim, and W. Chee), Durham, NC; School of Nursing, University of Delaware (Dr Ji), Newark; School of Engineering, North Carolina State University (Ms E. Chee), Raleigh; and Integrative Breast Oncology (Dr Bao) and Integrative Medicine (Dr Mao), Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY.

The study was funded by (a) the Patient Centered Outcomes Research Pilot Program, the Center for Therapeutic Effectiveness Research, and (b) the Population Science Pilot Project Award, the NCI Cancer Center Support Grant (P30 CA016520) and the Abramson Cancer Center of the University of Pennsylvania. Dr Mao is funded in part by a National Cancer Institute grant to the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (grant number P30-CA008748) and by the Laurance S. Rockefeller Fund.

The authors have disclosed that they have no significant relationships with, or financial interest in, any commercial companies pertaining to this article.

Corresponding author: Eun-Ok Im, PhD, MPH, FAAN, School of Nursing, Duke University, 307 Trent Dr, Durham, NC 27710 (

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