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Development and Evaluation of “Chronic Illness Care Smartphone Apps” on Nursing Students’ Knowledge, Self-efficacy, and Learning Experience

Kang, Jiyoung, MSN; Suh, Eunyoung E., PhD

CIN: Computers, Informatics, Nursing: November 2018 - Volume 36 - Issue 11 - p 550–559
doi: 10.1097/CIN.0000000000000447

This study developed smartphone-based virtual experiential nursing applications to care for patients with chronic illness, especially patients with hypertension and diabetes, and evaluated the effect of the applications on nursing students’ knowledge, self-efficacy, and learning experiences. Applications using gamification elements were developed according to the steps of assessment, design, development, implementation, and evaluation. Knowledge and self-efficacy were assessed via questionnaires, while learning experiences were assessed via six focus group interviews after the applications were used for 1 week. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive analysis, χ2 test, Fisher’s exact test, t test for the homogeneity of participants (experimental, 49; control, 43), an independent t test, and a paired t test for effectiveness in each group. Qualitative data were analyzed using qualitative thematic analysis. Knowledge on hypertension (t = 4.41, P < .001) and diabetes (t = 2.45, P < .009), as well as self-efficacy for hypertension (t = 3.08, P < .002) and diabetes (t = 1.75, P < .043), significantly improved in the experimental group compared to the control group. Students may use the applications as complementary learning resources without the limitations of time and space, and students were satisfied overall with their use. The chronic illness care smartphone applications are effective learning resources that assist students in assessing patients’ health problems and implementing nursing care plans to improve patient conditions.

Author Affiliations: College of Nursing (Ms Kang), Research Institute of Nursing Science (Dr Suh), Seoul National University, Republic of Korea.

This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (Ministry of Science, ICT, and Future Planning) (NRF-2013R1A2A2A01006176). This manuscript is based on a part of the first author's doctoral dissertation from Seoul National University.

The authors have disclosed that they have no significant relationships with, or financial interest in, any commercial companies pertaining to this article.

Corresponding author: Eunyoung E. Suh, PhD, Seoul National University College of Nursing, Room 513, 103 Daehakro, Jongnogu, Seoul 03080, Republic of Korea (

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