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The Development and Initial Testing of the Internet Consequences Scales (ICONS)

CLARK, DEBORAH J. PhD, MBA, RN; FRITH, KAREN H. PhD, RN

FEATURE ARTICLE

The Internet has become a tool for everyday use in the lives of many people; however, little is known about the consequences of using the Internet on the well-being of individuals. This article describes the development of the Internet Consequences Scale (ICONS), a tool to measure the physical, behavioral, economic, and psychosocial consequences of Internet use. Content validity was established using a panel of experts in Internet communications, and construct validity was established using a confirmatory factor analysis. Reliability of the ICONS was established statistically using Cronbach's alpha. The result was a 44-item tool containing four subscales to measure the consequences of Internet use.

Georgia College & State University, Milledgeville, GA.

Corresponding author: Deborah J. Clark, PhD, MBA, RN, Georgia College State University, Milledgerille, GA. 31061 (e-mail: deborahclark.58ecox.net).

© 2005 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.