The incidence of central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma is increasing, and it is important to raise this suspicion preoperatively because lymphomas will need only stereotactic biopsy for tissue typing as compared with a more extensive resection in other forms of brain tumors. Moreover, if the diagnosis of CNS lymphoma is unknown preoperatively, inadvertent administration of preoperative corticosteroids can lead to a false biopsy histopathologic interpretation. The imaging appearance of CNS lymphoma depends on the immunity status of the patient and can be confused easily with CNS infection, glioma, or metastasis. This CME activity emphasizes that the use of more advanced imaging techniques now has an important role in diagnosing CNS lymphoma, and, therefore, helps to avoid unnecessary, extensive surgical procedures needed to obtain a more accurate diagnosis. This review article will concentrate not only on how the diagnostic radiologist can use conventional and advanced imaging techniques to diagnose CNS lymphoma, but also how these techniques can help in the follow-up management of CNS lymphoma.