Original ArticlesNontraumatic Neurosurgical EmergenciesAshraf, Obaid MD; Bajwa, Omer MD; Leonardo, Jody MD; Altenbaugh, Mary BSN Author Information Division of Pulmonary Critical Care Medicine (Drs Ashraf and Bajwa Ms Altenbaugh) and Neurosurgery Institute (Dr Leonardo), Allegheny General Hospital, Allegheny Health Network, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Correspondence: Omer Bajwa, MD, Pulmonary Lab, Division of Pulmonary Critical Care Medicine, Allegheny General Hospital, 320 East North Ave, Pittsburgh, PA 15212 ([email protected]). The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare. Critical Care Nursing Quarterly: January/March 2023 - Volume 46 - Issue 1 - p 2-16 doi: 10.1097/CNQ.0000000000000434 Buy Metrics Abstract Most neurosurgical emergencies involve management of intracranial pressure, decompression of brain parenchyma, or diversion of cerebrospinal fluid. These interventions aim to prevent progression and reverse damage to neural structures. The pathologies that require emergent treatment either develop acutely or may progress over days until they reach a critical point causing decompensation. The risk of any intervention need to be weighed against potential benefits and should involve discussions with the family. Interventions have shown to be effective and facilitate patients' return to improved functionality. However, while neurosurgical interventions are lifesaving, surviving patients may have a severe residual disability. This article presents an overview of commonly seen nontraumatic neurosurgical emergencies. Each section presents key facets of presentation, initial workup, management, and role of surgical intervention. © 2023 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.