Original ArticlesBurnout, Compassion Fatigue, and Secondary Trauma in Nurses Recognizing the Occupational Phenomenon and Personal Consequences of CaregivingKelly, Lesly PhD, RN, FAANAuthor Information Dignity Health, Phoenix, Arizona, and Edson College of Nursing and Health Innovation, Arizona State University, Phoenix. Correspondence: Lesly Kelly, PhD, RN, FAAN, Edson College of Nursing and Health Innovation, Arizona State University, 500 N 3rd St, Phoenix, AZ 85004 (Lesly.Kelly@asu.edu). The author would like to gratefully acknowledge Frances Patmon, PhD, FNP-C, and Marla Weston, PhD, RN, FAAN, for assisting in the editing of this article. The author has disclosed that she has no significant relationships with, or financial interest in, any commercial companies pertaining to this article. Critical Care Nursing Quarterly: January/March 2020 - Volume 43 - Issue 1 - p 73-80 doi: 10.1097/CNQ.0000000000000293 Buy Metrics Abstract Burnout and compassion fatigue describe the state of health care professionals' extended stress, emotional states, and prolonged duress after events. In the past few decades, burnout and compassion fatigue have received increased focus and attention. This article summarizes the evolution in moving from viewing burnout as an individual's problem to understanding burnout as an occupational phenomenon, additionally recognizing the powerful role secondary trauma contributes to compassion fatigue. As such, the causes and addressing the solutions of burnout are multifaceted and complex. Causes of burnout stem from external pressure of caring for patients and pressure from organizational policy and practices, including unhealthy work environments, poor communication, stigma, and more. The harm from burnout and secondary trauma in health care professionals can be profound, impacting a significant portion of the workforce and manifesting in real suffering, including depression, emotional trauma, and suicide. As health care professionals are daily at risk, the need to recognize, address, and treat burnout is a priority. Both personal resilience building activities for effective stress reduction in clinicians and system-level solutions to address root causes must be utilized to address burnout. © 2020 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.