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Palliative Care

A Systematic Review of Evidence-Based Interventions

Riahi, Shadan MSc; Khajehei, Marjan PhD

doi: 10.1097/CNQ.0000000000000269
Original Articles

The authors conducted an integrative review to determine evidence-based and most efficient strategies for improving the palliative care of patients at the end-of-life stage. Thirteen articles that met the overall inclusion criteria were evaluated. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses flowchart approach was used for the screening process. The Critical Appraisal Skill Program and the Mixed-Methods Appraisal Tool were also used for the critical appraisal of the data. Full reports of relevant articles were retrieved, and data were extracted by 2 reviewers independently. The quality of studies was appraised in reference to Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Research guidelines. Key aspects included communication and coordination among the team members—patient-centered approach. The major theme was the application of a holistic approach to palliative care consisting of providing comfort to the dying patient. It was identified that relationships, which were identified as spiritual needs, are also crucial to the improvement of palliative care. Improving nursing education in this area, undertaking appropriate curriculum development, and providing coordination among training programs will help knowledgeable health care providers deliver compassionate, affordable, sustainable, and high-quality care to a growing population of aging patients facing the end of their lives.

Estia Aged Care Facility, Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia (Ms Riahi); University of Wollongong, Wollongong, Australia (Ms Riahi); Department of Women's and Newborn Health, Westmead Public Hospital, Westmead, New South Wales, Australia (Dr Khajehei); The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia (Dr Khajehei); and University of New South Wales, Kensington, New South Wales, Australia (Dr Khajehei).

Correspondence: Marjan Khajehei, PhD, Department of Women's and Newborn Health, Westmead Public Hospital, Hawkesbury Rd, Westmead, NSW 2145, Australia (

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

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