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Direct Observation of Medication Errors in Critical Care Setting: A Systematic Review

Foster, Margaret, J., MS, MPH; Gary, Jodie, C., PhD, RN; Sooryanarayana, Sreedevi, Moodahanglur, M Arch

doi: 10.1097/CNQ.0000000000000188
Original Articles

Medication errors continue to be an issue for the critically ill and are costly to both patients and health care facilities. This article reviews published research about these errors and reports results of observational studies. The types of errors, incidence, and root causes have been considered along with adverse consequences. The implications for bedside practice as a result of this review are fairly straightforward. Medication errors are happening at an alarming rate in the critical care environment, and these errors are preventable. It is imperative that all personnel respect and follow established guidelines and procedural safeguards to ensure flawless drug delivery to patients.

Medical Sciences Library (Ms Foster) and College of Architecture (Ms Sooryanarayana), Texas A&M University, College Station; and College of Nursing, Texas A&M University Health Science Center, Bryan (Dr Gary).

Correspondence: Jodie C. Gary, PhD, RN, College of Nursing, Texas A&M University Health Science Center, Bryan, TX 77807 (

The authors have disclosed that they have no significant relationships with, or financial interest in, any commercial companies pertaining to this article.

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