Article: PDF OnlyGregg Theresa Landi MSN RNCritical Care Nursing Quarterly: August 1998 - p 42-54 Buy Abstract Many children every year will be treated in “adult” critical care units because of the limited pediatric trauma centers currently available. Assessment is an integral part of all pain management. Ideally, self-report is the gold standard for assessing pain; however, some children may not have the ability to use these tools. Nonverbal children may be assessed with behavioral tools such as the CHEOPS or FLACC. In children as young as 3 years old, the self-report tool called an OUCHER can be administered to assess their pain. Easy to apply nonpharmacological approaches are discussed with recommendations for nurses to incorporate into their daily care. © Williams & Wilkins 1998. All Rights Reserved.