1 Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.
2 Department of Health Research Methods, Evidence, and Impact, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.
3 Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA.
4 Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates.
5 Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet, Department of Intensive Care, Copenhagen, Denmark.
6 Scandinavian Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine (SSAI).
7 Department of Critical Care, King’s College London, Guy’s & St Thomas’ Hospital, London, United Kingdom.
8 Department of Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor and VA Ann Arbor Healthcare System, Ann Arbor, MI.
9 Intensive Care Department, Ministry of National Guard Health Affairs, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
10 Division of Critical Care Medicine, Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Medicine, Montefiore Healthcare System/Albert Einstein College of Medicine, The Bronx, NY.
11 Interdepartmental Division of Critical Care Medicine and the Institute of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.
12 Warren Alpert School of Medicine at Brown University, Providence, RI.
13 Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, RI.
14 Department of Intensive Care Medicine, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
15 Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
16 Department of Pharmacy, NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, NY.
17 State Key Laboratory of Complex, Severe, and Rare Diseases, Medical ICU, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.
18 Anaesthesiology, Pain and Intensive Care Department, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
19 Department of Critical Care Medicine, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, ON, Canada.
20 Department of Anesthesia and Interdepartmental Division of Critical Care Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.
21 Humanitas Clinical and Research Center–IRCCS, Rozzano (Mi), Italy.
22 Humanitas University, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Milan, Italy.
23 Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
24 Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.
25 Critical Care Medicine Department, National Institutes of Health Clinical Center and Laboratory of Immunoregulation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, MD.
26 Center for Intensive Care and Perioperative Medicine, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kraków, Poland.
27 Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton, ON, Canada.
28 Chair of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Department of Hygiene and Dietetics, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kraków, Poland.
29 Department of Internal Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada.
30 Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.
31 Department of Medicine, Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY.
32 Department of Anaesthesiology, Critical Care and Pain, Tata Memorial Hospital, Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai, India.
33 Houston Children’s Hospital, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX.
34 Vanderbilt University School of Nursing, Nashville, TN and Rush University College of Nursing, Chicago, IL.
35 School of Medicine and Surgery, Milano-Bicocca University, Milano, Italy.
36 ASST-Monza, San Gerardo Hospital, Monza, Italy.
37 Biobehavioral Nursing and Health Informatics–University of Washington School of Nursing/University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, WA.
38 Director, Research & Innovation Centre, King Saud Medical City, Ministry of Health & College of Medicine, Alfaisal University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
39 Critical Care Division, The George Institute for Global Health and UNSW, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
40 Malcolm Fisher Department of Intensive Care, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
41 Division of Infectious Diseases and International Health, Department of Medicine, University of Virginia, School of Medicine, Charlottesville, VA.
42 Department of Emergency and Critical Care, Imam Abdulrahman Ben Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia.
43 Department of Critical Care Medicine, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
44 Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine and Grady Memorial Hospital, Atlanta, GA.
45 Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania; Department of Surgery; Division of Traumatology, Surgical Critical Care and Emergency Surgery, Philadelphia, PA.
46 Department of Surgery and Emory Critical Care center, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA.
47 Department of Anesthesiology Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, Rome, Italy.
48 Istituto di Anestesiologia e Rianimazione, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy.
49 Adult Critical Care, St George’s University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust & St George’s University of London, London, United Kingdom.
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Dr. Evans has disclosed that she is a PI on a multi-center observational cohort study of hospitalized patients with severe acute respiratory infection, funded by the CDC Foundation. Drs. Prescott, Chertow, and Mammen disclosed government work. Dr. Fan received funding from Lung Technologies, MC3 Cardiopulmonary, and Fresenius Medical Care. Dr. Derde’s institution received funding from ZonMw (Den Haag, Europe) grant number 10150062010003, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), and from Rapid European COVID-19 Emergency Research response (RECOVER) (Europe, H2020) grant agreement No 101003589, and her institution has agreements with Faron (interferon), SOBI (anakinra), and Abbvie (lopinavir/r) to supply drugs for the above-funded studies. Dr. Du’s institution received funding from the Ministry of Science and Technology for a COVID-19–related study (NCT04244591). Dr. Crowther received funding from Servier Canada, Asahi Kasei, Precision Biologicals, Hemostasis Reference Laboratory, Pfizer, CSL Behring, Diagnostica Stago, and he disclosed that he undertakes significant amounts of both medical malpractice and product work in the general areas of hematology and thromboembolism. Dr. Belley-Cote received funding from CIHR, Roche, and Bayer as a principal investigator for the ACT trial that evaluates hydroxychloroquine, interferon beta, colchicine, aspirin, and rivaroxaban in patients with COVID-19. Dr. Zarychanski received operating grants from CIHR, LifeArc Foundation, Thistledown Foundation, and Research Manitoba for grants related to anticoagulation in COVID-19. Dr. McGreer’s institution received funding from Appili Therapeutics. Dr. Hayden disclosed he is a nonpaid consultant for multiple companies involved in developing COVID-19 countermeasures (Arcturus, Cidara, Gilead, GSK, resTORbio, Regeneron, SAB Biotherapeutics, Takeda, Vir), and he is a DSMB member for CytoDyn. Dr. Martin received funding from serving on a clinical trial data monitoring board. Dr. Antonelli received funding from consulting for Intersurgical and ESTOR. Dr. Waleed Alhazzani is the principal investigator on awake proning trial in COVID-19 COVI-PRONE. Dr. Yaseen Arabi is the principal investigator on a clinical trial for lopinavir/ritonavir and interferon in Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and he was a nonpaid consultant on antiviral active for MERS-coronavirus (CoV) for Gilead Sciences and SAB Biotherapeutics. He is an investigator on REMAP-CAP trial and is a Board Members of the International Severe Acute Respiratory and Emerging Infection Consortium (ISARIC). He is a co-investigator on the REMAP-CAP trial and on an awake proning trial in COVID-19 (COVI-PRONE). Dr. Maurizio Cecconi declared consultancy work with Edwards Lifesciences, Directed Systems, and Cheetah Medical: Dr. Lennie Derde is an investigator on REMAP-CAP trial, the NVIC (Dutch National ICU society) chair of Taskforce Infectious Diseases (standing committee), member of ESICM Coronavirus Taskforce (started with this outbreak), and chair of the ESICM Clinical Training Committee; all are unpaid positions. Dr. Laura Evans is the team leader for the critical care section of the NIH COVID-19 management guideline. Dr. Eddy Fan declared receiving consultancy fees from ALung Technologies and MC3 Cardiopulmonary. Dr. Frederick Hayden is a noncompensated consultant to Gilead Sciences, Regeneron, Cidara, Fujifilm, Ridgeback, Merck, Roche/Genentech, GSK, Vir, resTORbio, and SAB Biotherapeutics, and he is a DSMB member for CytoDyn therapeutic clinical trial: Dr. Manoj J. Mammen is an investigator for the U.S. NIH PASSive Immunity Trial for Our Nation (PassItOn) trial: Dr. Greg Martin is a member of the NIH COVID-19 treatment guidelines, principal investigator for COVID-19 diagnostic testing (U.S. NIH RADx program) and has served as a research consultant to Genentech, Grifols, Regeneron and Siemens. Dr. Massimo Antonelli declared consultancy with Toray/Estor and Fisher and Pykel and research grant from GE. Dr. Flavia Machado is member of the executive committee for the CODEX study. Dr. Sheila Nainan Myatra is on the steering committee of the COVID Steroid 2 Trial (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04509973) and the HydrOxychloroquine Prophylaxis Evaluation (HOPE) Trial (CTRI registration No.CTRI/2020/05/025067). Dr Naomi Hammond is on the steering committee of the COVID Steroid 2 Trial (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04509973) and the HydrOxychloroquine Prophylaxis Evaluation (HOPE) Trial (CTRI registration No.CTRI/2020/05/025067). Dr. Emilie Belley-Cote reports grants from Bayer, grants from Roche outside the submitted work. She is a principal investigator for the ACT trial: The remaining authors have disclosed that they do not have any potential conflicts of interest.
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