To determine the association between mean airway pressure and 90-day mortality in patients with acute respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation and to compare the predictive ability of mean airway pressure compared with inspiratory plateau pressure and driving pressure.
Prospective observational cohort.
Five ICUs in Lima, Peru.
Adults requiring invasive mechanical ventilation via endotracheal tube for acute respiratory failure.
Measurements and Main Results:
Of potentially eligible participants (n = 1,500), 65 (4%) were missing baseline mean airway pressure, while 352 (23.5%) were missing baseline plateau pressure and driving pressure. Ultimately, 1,429 participants were included in the analysis with an average age of 59 ± 19 years, 45% female, and a mean Pao2/Fio2 ratio of 248 ± 147 mm Hg at baseline. Overall, 90-day mortality was 50.4%. Median baseline mean airway pressure was 13 cm H2O (interquartile range, 10–16 cm H2O) in participants who died compared to a median mean airway pressure of 12 cm H2O (interquartile range, 10–14 cm H2O) in participants who survived greater than 90 days (p < 0.001). Mean airway pressure was independently associated with 90-day mortality (odds ratio, 1.38 for difference comparing the 75th to the 25th percentile for mean airway pressure; 95% CI, 1.10–1.74) after adjusting for age, sex, baseline Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation III, baseline Pao2/Fio2 (modeled with restricted cubic spline), baseline positive end-expiratory pressure, baseline tidal volume, and hospital site. In predicting 90-day mortality, baseline mean airway pressure demonstrated similar discriminative ability (adjusted area under the curve = 0.69) and calibration characteristics as baseline plateau pressure and driving pressure.
In a multicenter prospective cohort, baseline mean airway pressure was independently associated with 90-day mortality in mechanically ventilated participants and predicts mortality similarly to plateau pressure and driving pressure. Because mean airway pressure is readily available on all mechanically ventilated patients and all ventilator modes, it is a potentially more useful predictor of mortality in acute respiratory failure.