The incidence of acute kidney injury in critically ill patients is increasing steeply. Acute kidney injury in this setting is associated with high morbidity and mortality. There is no doubt that renal replacement therapy for the most severe forms of acute kidney injury can be life saving, but there are a number of uncertainties about the optimal application of renal replacement therapy for patients with acute kidney injury. The objective of this synthetic review is to present current evidence supporting best practices in renal replacement therapy for critically ill patients with acute kidney injury.
We reviewed literature regarding timing of initiation of renal replacement therapy, optimal vascular access for renal replacement therapy in acute kidney injury, modality selection and dose or intensity of renal replacement therapy, and anticoagulation during renal replacement therapy, using the following databases: MEDLINE and PubMed. We also reviewed bibliographic citations of retrieved articles.
We reviewed only English language articles.
Current evidence sheds light on many areas of controversy regarding renal replacement therapy in acute kidney injury, providing a foundation for best practices. Nonetheless, important questions remain to be answered by ongoing and future investigation.