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Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy in Pediatric Severe Sepsis

A Propensity Score-Matched Prospective Multicenter Cohort Study in the PICU

Miao, Huijie MD1; Shi, Jingyi MD, PhD1; Wang, Chunxia PhD1; Lu, Guoping MD, PhD2; Zhu, Xiaodong MD, PhD3; Wang, Ying MD, PhD4; Cui, Yun MD1; Zhang, Yucai MD, PhD1

doi: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000003901
Online Clinical Investigation: PDF Only
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Objectives: Continuous renal replacement therapy becomes available utilization for pediatric critically ill, but the impact of mortality rate in severe sepsis remains no consistent conclusion. The aim of the study is to assess the effect of continuous renal replacement therapy in pediatric patients with severe sepsis and the impact this therapy may have on their mortality.

Design: Propensity score-matched cohort study analyzing data prospectively collected by the PICUs over 2 years (2016–2018).

Setting: Four PICUs of tertiary university children’s hospital in China.

Patients: The consecutive patients with severe sepsis admitted to study PICUs were enrolled from July 2016 to June 2018.

Interventions: The patients were divided into the continuous renal replacement therapy group and the conventional (noncontinuous renal replacement therapy) group.

Measurements and Main Results: A total of 324 patients with severe sepsis were enrolled. The hospital mortality rate was 35.6% (64/180) in the continuous renal replacement therapy group and 47.9% (69/144) in the noncontinuous renal replacement therapy group. After propensity score adjustment, the hospital mortality rate was 21.3% (29/136) in the continuous renal replacement therapy group and 32.4% (44/136) in the noncontinuous renal replacement therapy group. In subgroup analysis, the relative risk of dying was 0.447 (95% CI, 0.208–0.961) only in patients complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome (p = 0.037), but not in patients with shock, acute kidney injury, acute liver dysfunction, encephalopathy, and fluid overload greater than 10%. The mean duration of continuous renal replacement therapy was 45 hours (26–83 hr) with an ultrafiltration rate of 50 mL/kg/hr. The level of interleukin-6 was decreased, and the percent of natural killer cells (%) was improved in the continuous renal replacement therapy group compared with the noncontinuous renal replacement therapy group. Furthermore, continuous renal replacement therapy was an independently significant risk factor for hospital mortality in pediatric patients with severe sepsis, and the interval between continuous renal replacement therapy initiation and PICU admission was an independent risk factor for hospital mortality in patients receiving continuous renal replacement therapy.

Conclusions: Continuous renal replacement therapy with an ultrafiltration rate of 50 mL/kg/hr decreases hospital mortality rate in pediatric severe sepsis, especially in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome.

1Department of Critical Care Medicine, Shanghai Children’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

2Department of Critical Care Medicine, Children’s Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

3Department of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

4Department of Critical Care Medicine, Shanghai Children’s Medical Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine. Shanghai, China.

Drs. Miao and Shi contributed equally to this work.

Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text and are provided in the HTML and PDF versions of this article on the journal’s website (http://journals.lww.com/ccmjournal).

Supported, in part, by grants from the Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality (16411970300,18411951000), funded by Clinical Multicenter Study supported by Clinical Research Center of Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine (DLY201618, 20171928), New Advanced Technology Project at the Shanghai City Hospital Development Center (SHDC12014116).

Drs. Wang and Zhang received funding from Clinical Multicenter Study supported by Clinical Research Center of Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine (DLY201618, 20171928). Dr. Zhang received funding from Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality (16411970300); Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality (18411951000). The remaining authors have disclosed that they do not have any potential conflicts of interest.

For information regarding this article, E-mail: zyucai2018@163.com

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