Early seizures are a common complication of intracerebral hemorrhage, occurring in ~10% of patients. However, the independent effect of early seizures on patient outcomes, particularly health-related quality of life, is unclear. Without a potential benefit to patient outcomes, the widespread use (~40%) of prophylactic seizure medications has no reasonable chance of improving patient outcomes. We tested the hypothesis that health-related quality of life at follow-up is different between patients with and without early seizures (and secondarily, with nonconvulsive status epilepticus) after intracerebral hemorrhage.
Patients with intracerebral hemorrhage were enrolled in an observational cohort study that prospectively collected clinical data and health-related quality of life at follow-up.
Academic medical center.
One-hundred thirty-three patients whose health-related quality of life was assessed 3 months after intracerebral hemorrhage onset.
MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:
Health-related quality of life was obtained at 3 months after intracerebral hemorrhage onset. T Scores of health-related quality of life were modeled with multivariable linear models accounting for severity with the intracerebral hemorrhage Score and hematoma location. Health-related quality of life was measured with National Institutes of Health Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System/Neuroquality of life, expressed in T Scores (U.S. normal 50 ± 10). The modified Rankin Scale (a global measure) was a secondary outcome. There were 12 patients (9%) with early seizures. T Scores of health-related quality of life at follow-up were lower (worse) in patients with early seizure compared with patients without an early seizure (44 [32.75–51.85] vs 30.25 [18.9–39.15]; p = 0.04); results for other domains of health-related quality of life were similar. The association persisted in multivariable models. There was no association between early seizures and prophylactic seizure medications (p = 0.4). Results for patients with nonconvulsive status epilepticus were similar. There was no association between early seizures and the modified Rankin Scale at 3 months.
Early seizures and nonconvulsive status epilepticus were associated with lower health-related quality of life at follow-up in survivors of intracerebral hemorrhage.