Septic cardiomyopathy develops frequently in patients with sepsis and likely increases short-term mortality. However, whether septic cardiomyopathy is associated with long-term outcomes after sepsis is unknown. We investigated whether septic patients with septic cardiomyopathy have worse long-term outcomes than septic patients without septic cardiomyopathy.
Retrospective cohort study.
Adult ICU patients with sepsis.
MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:
Left ventricular global longitudinal systolic strain was our primary measure of septic cardiomyopathy. We employed a suite of multivariable survival analyses to explore linear and nonlinear associations between left ventricular global longitudinal systolic strain and major adverse cardiovascular events, which included death, stroke, and myocardial infarction. Our primary outcome was major adverse cardiovascular event through 24 months after ICU discharge. Among 290 study patients, median left ventricular global longitudinal systolic strain was –16.8% (interquartile range, –20.4% to –12.6%), and 38.3% of patients (n = 111) experienced a major adverse cardiovascular event within 24 months after discharge. On our primary, linear analysis, there was a trend (p = 0.08) toward association between left ventricular global longitudinal systolic strain and major adverse cardiovascular event (odds ratio, 1.03; CI, < 1 to 1.07). On our nonlinear analysis, the association was highly significant (p < 0.001) with both high and low left ventricular global longitudinal systolic strain associated with major adverse cardiovascular event among patients with pre-existing cardiac disease. This association was pronounced among patients who were younger (age < 65 yr) and had Charlson Comorbidity Index greater than 5.
Among patients with sepsis and pre-existing cardiac disease who survived to ICU discharge, left ventricular global longitudinal systolic strain demonstrated a U-shaped association with cardiovascular outcomes through 24 months. The relationship was especially strong among younger patients with more comorbidities. These observations are likely of use to design of future trials.