To evaluate associations between a readily availvable composite measurement of neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage (the area deprivation index) and 30-day readmissions for patients who were previously hospitalized with sepsis.
A retrospective study.
An urban, academic medical institution.
The authors conducted a manual audit for adult patients (18 yr old or older) discharged with an International Classification of Diseases, 10th edition code of sepsis during the 2017 fiscal year to confirm that they met SEP-3 criteria.
Measurements and Main Results:
The area deprivation index is a publicly available composite score constructed from socioeconomic components (e.g., income, poverty, education, housing characteristics) based on census block level, where higher scores are associated with more disadvantaged areas (range, 1–100). Using discharge data from the hospital population health database, residential addresses were geocoded and linked to their respective area deprivation index. Patient characteristics, contextual-level variables, and readmissions were compared by t tests for continuous variables and Fisher exact test for categorical variables. The associations between readmissions and area deprivation index were explored using logistic regression models. A total of 647 patients had an International Classification of Diseases, 10th edition diagnosis code of sepsis. Of these 647, 116 (17.9%) either died in hospital or were discharged to hospice and were excluded from our analysis. Of the remaining 531 patients, the mean age was 61.0 years (± 17.6 yr), 281 were females (52.9%), and 164 (30.9%) were active smokers. The mean length of stay was 6.9 days (± 5.6 d) with the mean Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score 4.9 (± 2.5). The mean area deprivation index was 54.2 (± 23.8). The mean area deprivation index of patients who were readmitted was 62.5 (± 27.4), which was significantly larger than the area deprivation index of patients not readmitted (51.8 [± 22.2]) (p < 0.001). In adjusted logistic regression models, a greater area deprivation index was significantly associated with readmissions (β, 0.03; p < 0.001).
Patients who reside in more disadvantaged neighborhoods have a significantly higher risk for 30-day readmission following a hospitalization for sepsis. The insight provided by neighborhood disadvantage scores, such as the area deprivation index, may help to better understand how contextual-level socioeconomic status affects the burden of sepsis-related morbidity.