To compare electrographic seizures, hyperexcitable patterns, and clinical outcomes in lobar and deep intraparenchymal hemorrhage. Additionally, to characterize electrographic seizure and hyperexcitable pattern predictors in each group and determine seizure risk with thalamic involvement.
Retrospective cohort study.
Tertiary academic medical center.
Consecutive adult patients with nontraumatic intraparenchymal hemorrhage undergoing continuous electroencephalography at our center between January 2013 and December 2016.
Measurements and Main Results:
Based on head CT closest to the initial continuous electroencephalography session, we classified intraparenchymal hemorrhage as isolated deep (no insular, subarachnoid, subdural extension) or lobar. Hyperexcitable patterns included the following: periodic discharges, spike-wave complexes, any rhythmic delta other than generalized. We used Fisher exact test for categorical and Mann-Whitney U test for continuous variables. Multivariable regression identified predictors of electrographic seizures, hyperexcitable patterns, and poor outcomes (score of 1–2 on Glasgow Outcome Scale) in lobar intraparenchymal hemorrhage. The cohort comprised of 128 patients, 88 lobar, and 40 deep intraparenchymal hemorrhage. Electrographic seizures occurred in 17% of lobar and 5% of deep intraparenchymal hemorrhage (p = 0.09). Hyperexcitable patterns were more frequent in the lobar group (44.3% vs 17.5%; p = 0.005). In multivariable analyses in the lobar group, lateralized rhythmic delta activity predicted electrographic seizures (odds ratio, 6.24; CI, 1.49–26.08; p = 0.012); insular involvement predicted hyperexcitable patterns (odds ratio, 4.88; CI, 1.36–17.57; p = 0.015); coma, temporal lobe involvement, intraparenchymal hemorrhage volume, and electrographic seizures predicted poor outcome. Thalamic involvement did not affect electrographic seizures or hyperexcitable patterns in either group.
Electrographic seizures are frequent in lobar intraparenchymal hemorrhage, occurring in one in six monitored patients, as opposed to only 5% in isolated deep intraparenchymal hemorrhage not extending to cortex/insula, subarachnoid, or subdural spaces. Patients with lobar intraparenchymal hemorrhage and lateralized rhythmic delta activity were six times as likely to have electrographic seizures, which were associated with 5.47 higher odds of a poor outcome. Coma, temporal lobe involvement, hematoma volume, and electrographic seizures predicted poor outcome in lobar intraparenchymal hemorrhage.