Thyroid storm represents a rare but life-threatening endocrine emergency. Only rare data are available on its management and the outcome of the most severe forms requiring ICU admission. We aimed to describe the clinical manifestations, management and in-ICU and 6-month survival rates of patients with those most severe thyroid storm forms requiring ICU admission.
Retrospective, multicenter, national study over an 18-year period (2000–2017).
Thirty-one French ICUs.
The local medical records of patients from each participating ICU were screened using the International Classification of Diseases
, 10th Revision. Inclusion criteria were “definite thyroid storm,” as defined by the Japanese Thyroid Association criteria, and at least one thyroid storm-related organ failure.
Measurements and Main Results:
Ninety-two patients were included in the study. Amiodarone-associated thyrotoxicosis
and Graves’ disease represented the main thyroid storm etiologies (30 [33%] and 24 [26%] patients, respectively), while hyperthyroidism
was unknown in 29 patients (32%) before ICU admission. Amiodarone use (24 patients [26%]) and antithyroid-drug discontinuation (13 patients [14%]) were the main thyroid storm-triggering factors. No triggering factor was identified for 30 patients (33%). Thirty-five patients (38%) developed cardiogenic shock
within the first 48 hours after ICU admission. In-ICU and 6-month postadmission mortality rates were 17% and 22%, respectively. ICU nonsurvivors more frequently required vasopressors, extracorporeal membrane of oxygenation, renal replacement therapy, mechanical ventilation, and/or therapeutic plasmapheresis. Multivariable analyses retained Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score without cardiovascular component (odds ratio, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.03–1.46; p
= 0.025) and cardiogenic shock
within 48 hours post-ICU admission (odds ratio, 9.43; 1.77–50.12; p
= 0.008) as being independently associated with in-ICU mortality.
Thyroid storm requiring ICU admission causes high in-ICU mortality. Multiple organ failure and early cardiogenic shock
seem to markedly impact the prognosis, suggesting a prompt identification and an aggressive management.