To identify the frequency, causes, and risk factors of early and late mortality
among general adult patients discharged from ICUs.
Multicenter, prospective cohort study.
ICUs of 10 tertiary hospitals in Brazil.
One-thousand five-hundred fifty-four adult ICU survivors
with an ICU stay greater than 72 hours for medical and emergency surgical admissions or greater than 120 hours for elective surgical admissions.
Measurements and Main Results:
The main outcomes were early (30 d) and late (31 to 365 d) mortality
. Causes of death were extracted from death certificates and medical records. Twelve-month cumulative mortality
was 28.2% (439 deaths). The frequency of early mortality
was 7.9% (123 deaths), and the frequency of late mortality
was 22.3% (316 deaths). Infections were the leading cause of death
in both early (47.2%) and late (36.4%) periods. Multivariable analysis identified age greater than or equal to 65 years (hazard ratio, 1.65; p
= 0.01), pre-ICU high comorbidity (hazard ratio, 1.59; p
= 0.02), pre-ICU physical dependence (hazard ratio, 2.29; p
< 0.001), risk of death at ICU admission (hazard ratio per 1% increase, 1.008; p
= 0.03), ICU-acquired infections (hazard ratio, 2.25; p
< 0.001), and ICU readmission (hazard ratio, 3.76; p
< 0.001) as risk factors for early mortality
. Age greater than or equal to 65 years (hazard ratio, 1.30; p
= 0.03), pre-ICU high comorbidity (hazard ratio, 2.28; p
< 0.001), pre-ICU physical dependence (hazard ratio, 2.00; p
< 0.001), risk of death at ICU admission (hazard ratio per 1% increase, 1.010; p
< 0.001), and ICU readmission (hazard ratios, 4.10, 4.17, and 1.82 for death between 31 and 60 days, 61 and 90 days, and greater than 90 days after ICU discharge, respectively; p
< 0.001 for all comparisons) were associated with late mortality
Infections are the main cause of death
after ICU discharge. Older age, pre-ICU comorbidities, pre-ICU physical dependence, severity of illness at ICU admission, and ICU readmission are associated with increased risk of early and late mortality
, while ICU-acquired infections are associated with increased risk of early mortality