is the most common serious adverse event during endotracheal intubation
. Preoxygenation is performed routinely as a preventive measure. The relative efficacy of the various available preoxygenation devices is unclear. Here, our objective was to assess associations between preoxygenation devices and pulse oximetry values during endotracheal intubation
Post hoc analysis of data from a multicenter randomized controlled superiority trial (McGrath Mac Videolaryngoscope Versus Macintosh Laryngoscope [MACMAN]) comparing videolaryngoscopy to Macintosh laryngoscopy for endotracheal intubation
in critical care
Seven French ICUs.
Three-hundred nineteen of the 371 critically ill adults requiring endotracheal intubation
who were included in the MACMAN trial.
Measurements and Main Results:
Minimal pulse oximetry value during endotracheal intubation
was the primary endpoint. We also sought risk factors for pulse oximetry below 90%. Of 319 patients, 157 (49%) had bag-valve-mask, 71 (22%) noninvasive ventilation, 71 (22%) non-rebreathing mask, and 20 (7%) high-flow nasal oxygen for preoxygenation. Factors independently associated with minimal pulse oximetry value were the Simplified Acute Physiology Score II severity score (p
= 0.03), baseline pulse oximetry (p
< 0.001), baseline Pao2
= 0.02), and number of laryngoscopies (p
= 0.001). The only independent predictors of pulse oximetry less than 90% were baseline pulse oximetry (odds ratio, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.64–0.79; p
< 0.001) and preoxygenation device: with bag-valve-mask as the reference, odds ratios were 1.10 (95% CI, 0.25–4.92) with non-rebreathing mask, 0.10 (95% CI, 0.01–0.80) with noninvasive ventilation, and 5.75 (95% CI, 1.15–28.75) with high-flow nasal oxygen.
Our data suggest that the main determinants of hypoxemia
during endotracheal intubation
may be related to critical illness severity and to preexisting hypoxemia
. The differences across preoxygenation methods suggest that noninvasive ventilation may deserve preference in patients with marked hypoxemia
before endotracheal intubation
. Ongoing studies will provide further clarification about the optimal preoxygenation method for endotracheal intubation
in critically ill patients.