1University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA.
2Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD.
3University of Washington, Seattle, WA.
4UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX.
5University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH.
6University of Miami, Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL.
7Stanford University, Stanford, CA.
8Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, OH.
9Temple University, Philadelphia, PA.
10Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA.
11Lankenau Medical Center, Wynnewood, PA.
12Moberg Research, Ambler, PA.
13Baylor St. Luke’s Medical Center, Houston, TX.
14Department of Neurology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA.
*See also p. 1961.
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Supported, in part, by the National Institutes of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (R01 NS061860).
Drs. Okonkwo, Shutter, Moore, Temkin, Puccio, Madden, Chesnut, McGregor, Weaver, LeRoux, and Diaz-Arrastia received support for article research from the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Dr. Okonkwo disclosed off-label product use of intracranial pressure monitors and brain tissue oxygenation monitors (Integra LifeSciences, Plainsboro, NJ). Dr. Shutter’s institution received funding from the NIH; she received funding from legal firms for expert testimony on cases not related to this study; and she disclosed that her spouse was briefly an independent contractor for medical sales with Raumedic, who makes a medical device that measures brain tissue oxygen. The Raumedic device was not used in this study (total compensation was $3,500). Drs. Temkin’s and Barber’s institution received funding from the NIH/National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Dr. Temkin disclosed that her salary through her institution comes primarily from grants and contracts with various U.S. federal agencies; and she received funding from various pharmaceutical companies and academic institutions (data and safety monitoring boards and statistical consulting) and from reviewing grants for various federal agencies and for nonprofits. Dr. Chesnut disclosed that he holds the Integra Endowed Professorship in Neurotrauma at the University of Washington, which was established in total, with no further contributions, prior to the origin of this work. Dr. Grant received funding from honorarium for talk about brain oxygen monitoring from Integra Life Sciences in 2016, 2 years after completion of Brain Oxygen Optimization in Severe TBI Phase-II trial. Dr. McGregor’s institution received funding from the NIH. Dr. LeRoux’s institution received funding from the NIH; he received other support from consulting for Integra and Codman; he receives research funding from Integra Lifesciences; and he is a consultant for Integra Lifesciences, Codman, Depuy-Synthes, and Neurologica and a member of the scientific advisory board of Cerebrotech and Edge Therapeutics. Mr. Moberg’s institution received funding from the NIH; he disclosed that he is the founder, CEO, and shareholder of a company that provided data collection equipment and expertise for the project; and he has a proprietary interest in Moberg ICU Solutions, which manufactures the data collection device used in the study Dr. Diaz-Arrastia’s institution received funding from the NIH. The remaining authors have disclosed that they do not have any potential conflicts of interest.
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