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No assisted ventilation cardiopulmonary resuscitation and 24-hour neurological outcomes in a porcine model of cardiac arrest

Yannopoulos, Demetris MD; Matsuura, Timothy BS; McKnite, Scott BS; Goodman, Noah BS; Idris, Ahamed MD; Tang, Wanchun MD; Aufderheide, Tom P. MD; Lurie, Keith G. MD

doi: 10.1097/CCM.0b013e3181b42f6c
Neurologic Critical Care

Objectives: To evaluate the effect of no assisted ventilation cardiopulmonary resuscitation on neurologically intact survival compared with ten positive pressure ventilations/minute cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a pig model of cardiac arrest.

Design: Prospective randomized animal study.

Setting: Animal laboratory.

Subjects: Sixteen female intubated pigs (25.2 ± 2.1 kg) anesthetized with propofol.

Interventions: fter 8 mins of untreated ventricular fibrillation, the intubated animals were randomized to 8 mins of continuous chest compressions (100/min) and either no assisted ventilation (n = 9) or 10 positive pressure ventilations/min (Smart Resuscitator Bag with 100% O2 flow at 10 L/min) (n = 7). The primary end point, neurologically intact 24-hr survival, was evaluated using a pig cerebral performance category score by a veterinarian blinded to the cardiopulmonary resuscitation method.

Measurements, and Main Results: During cardiopulmonary resuscitation, aortic and coronary perfusion pressure were similar between groups but cerebral perfusion pressure was significantly higher in the positive pressure ventilation group (33 ± 15 vs. 14 ± 14, p = .04). After 7.5 mins of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, arterial pO2 (mm Hg) and mixed venous O2 saturation (%) were significantly higher in the positive pressure ventilation compared with the no assisted ventilation group (117 ± 29 and 41 ± 21 vs. 40 ± 24 and 10.8 ± 7; p = .01 for both). Paco2 was significantly lower in the positive pressure ventilation group (48 ± 10 vs. 77 ± 26, p = .01). After 24 hrs, four of nine no assisted ventilation pigs were alive with a mean cerebral performance category score of 3 ± 0 vs. five of seven alive and neurologically intact positive pressure ventilation pigs with a cerebral performance category score of 1 ± 0.3 (p < .001 for cerebral performance category score).

Conclusions: No assisted ventilation cardiopulmonary resuscitation results in profound hypoxemia, respiratory acidosis, and significantly worse 24-hr neurologic outcomes compared with positive pressure ventilation cardiopulmonary resuscitation in pigs.

From the Division of Cardiology (DY), University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN; Minnesota Medical Research Foundation (TM, SM, NG), Hennepin County Medical Center, Minneapolis, MN, Department of Emergency Medicine (AI), University of Texas Southwestern, Dallas, TX; Department of Emergency Medicine (WT), Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California–Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA; Department of Emergency Medicine (TPA), Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI; and Department of Emergency Medicine and Internal Medicine (KGL), Minnesota Medical Research Foundation, Hennepin County Medical Center, Minneapolis, MN.

Dr. Lurie is the inventor of the inspiratory impedance threshold device and the intrathoracic pressure regulator, both CPR devices, and formed Advanced Circulatory Systems Inc (ACSI) to develop this technology. Mr. Matsuura is employed by Advanced Circulatory Systems Inc. Dr. Aufderheide has consulted for Take Heart America. Dr. Aufderheide has patents from the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke. The remaining authors have not disclosed any potential conflicts of interest.

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© 2010 by the Society of Critical Care Medicine and Lippincott Williams & Wilkins