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Use of a peripheral perfusion index derived from the pulse oximetry signal as a noninvasive indicator of perfusion

Pinto Lima, Alexandre MD; Beelen, Peter RN; Bakker, Jan MD, PhD

CLINICAL INVESTIGATIONS
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Objective Peripheral perfusion in critically ill patients frequently is assessed by use of clinical signs. Recently, the pulse oximetry signal has been suggested to reflect changes in peripheral perfusion. A peripheral perfusion index based on analysis of the pulse oximetry signal has been implemented in monitoring systems as an index of peripheral perfusion. No data on the variation of this index in the normal population are available, and clinical application of this variable in critically ill patients has not been reported. We therefore studied the variation of the peripheral perfusion index in healthy adults and related it to the central-to-toe temperature difference and capillary refill time in critically ill patients after changes in clinical signs of peripheral perfusion.

Design Prospective study.

Setting University-affiliated teaching hospital.

Patients One hundred eight healthy adult volunteers and 37 adult critically ill patients.

Interventions None.

Measurements and Main Results Capillary refill time, peripheral perfusion index, and arterial oxygen saturation were measured in healthy adults (group 1). Capillary refill time, peripheral perfusion index, arterial oxygen saturation, central-to-toe temperature difference, and hemodynamic variables were measured in critically ill patients (group 2) during different peripheral perfusion profiles. Poor peripheral perfusion was defined as a capillary refill time >2 secs and central-to-toe temperature difference ≥7°C. Peripheral perfusion index and arterial oxygen saturation were measured by using the Philips Medical Systems Viridia/56S monitor. In group 1, measurements were made before and after a meal. In group 2, two measurements were made, with the second measurement taken when the peripheral perfusion profile had changed. A total of 216 measurements were carried out in group 1. The distribution of the peripheral perfusion index was skewed and values ranged from 0.3 to 10.0, median 1.4 (inner quartile range, 0.7–3.0). Seventy-four measurements were carried out in group 2. A significant correlation between the peripheral perfusion index and the core-to-toe temperature difference was found (R2= .52;p < .001). A cutoff peripheral perfusion index value of 1.4 (calculated by constructing a receiver operating characteristic curve) best reflected the presence of poor peripheral perfusion in critically ill patients. Changes in peripheral perfusion index and changes in core-to-toe temperature difference correlated significantly (R = .52, p < .001).

Conclusions The peripheral perfusion index distribution in the normal population is highly skewed. Changes in the peripheral perfusion index reflect changes in the core-to-toe temperature difference. Therefore, peripheral perfusion index measurements can be used to monitor peripheral perfusion in critically ill patients.

From the Department of Intensive Care Gelre Hospital, Apeldoorn, The Netherlands.

Address requests for reprints to: Jan Bakker, MD, PhD, Isala Clinics, Department of Intensive Care Weezenlanden, PO Box 10500, 8000 GM Zwolle, The Netherlands. E-mail: acutgen@wxs.nl

This easily obtainable and noninvasive method may have a role in monitoring peripheral perfusion in critically ill patients.

© 2002 by the Society of Critical Care Medicine and Lippincott Williams & Wilkins