To review the history and current applications of artificial intelligence in the intensive care unit.
The MEDLINE database, bibliographies of selected articles, and current texts on the subject.
The studies that were selected for review used artificial intelligence tools for a variety of intensive care applications, including direct patient care and retrospective database analysis.
All literature relevant to the topic was reviewed.
Although some of the earliest artificial intelligence (AI) applications were medically oriented, AI has not been widely accepted in medicine. Despite this, patient demographic, clinical, and billing data are increasingly available in an electronic format and therefore susceptible to analysis by intelligent software. Individual AI tools are specifically suited to different tasks, such as waveform analysis or device control.
The intensive care environment is particularly suited to the implementation of AI tools because of the wealth of available data and the inherent opportunities for increased efficiency in inpatient care. A variety of new AI tools have become available in recent years that can function as intelligent assistants to clinicians, constantly monitoring electronic data streams for important trends, or adjusting the settings of bedside devices. The integration of these tools into the intensive care unit can be expected to reduce costs and improve patient outcomes.