It is well known that women are protected from cardiovascular disease before menopause compared to age-matched men. For instance, the incidence of hypertension is higher in men and increases in post-menopausal women. The molecular mechanisms for the protection are not known. In their invited review in the September issue, Dr. Webb and colleagues discuss the possible involvement of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which play an important role in the innate immune system and were recently shown be involved in the regulation of blood pressure. Their review covers sex differences in TLR expression and the evidence that their activation may impact blood pressure regulation in a sex-dependent manner.
Incidentally, since biological sex influences the prevalence, morbidity, and mortality associated with cardiovascular disease, and influences drug metabolism and efficacy, the Journal will now require that the sex of the experimental material (cells and tissues), not just animals or human participants, be identified in all articles. We thank Dr. Virginia M. Miller for drawing our attention to the importance of this matter.
In the September issue, we also gratefully acknowledge the contribution of 234 individuals who reviewed manuscripts for the Journal in the period from January through June of 2020. Their hard work, time, and dedication to science are essential to maintain the integrity of the Journal, and their selfless support is deeply appreciated.