Review ArticleMitochondrial Transplantation: A Unique Treatment StrategyZhou, Manli MD*; Yu, Yunfeng MS*; Luo, Ying MS†; Luo, Xiaoxin MS*; Zhang, Yifan MS*; Zhou, Xiahui MS*; Hu, Yilei MS*; Jian, Weixiong MD*,‡ Author Information *College of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Hunan University of Chinese Medicine, Changsha, China; ‡National Key Discipline of Traditional Chinese Medicine Diagnostics, Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory, Hunan University of Chinese Medicine, Changsha, China; and †Traditional Chinese Medicine Department, Chenzhou First People's Hospital, Chenzhou, China. Reprints: Jian Weixiong, MD, National Key Discipline of Traditional Chinese Medicine Diagnostics, Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory, Hunan University of Chinese Medicine, Changsha 410208, China (e-mail: [email protected]). This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 81973753 to W. X. Jian). The authors report no conflicts of interest. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology: June 2022 - Volume 79 - Issue 6 - p 759-768 doi: 10.1097/FJC.0000000000001247 Buy Metrics Abstract Mitochondrial transplantation (MT) refers to the process of introducing isolated mitochondria into a damaged area of the heart or other organs. In the past decade, this technique has been continuously updated as the fundamental research on the repair of damaged cells or tissues. In particular, in the field of heart protection from ischemia–reperfusion injury, the MT therapy has been developed to the clinical trial stage. Generally speaking, the goal of therapeutic intervention is to replace damaged mitochondria or increase the transfer of mitochondria between cells so as to improve mitochondrial dysfunction. In this review, we summarized the studies on MT conducted at different time nodes and outlined a range of different methods for delivering mitochondria into the target site. Finally, we described the applications of MT in different diseases and discussed the clinical studies of human MT currently in progress and the problems that need to be overcome. We hope to provide new ideas for the treatment of mitochondrial defect–related diseases. Copyright © 2022 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.