Safety and Functional Pharmacokinetic Profile of APAC, a Novel Intravascular Antiplatelet and Anticoagulant : Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology

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Original Article

Safety and Functional Pharmacokinetic Profile of APAC, a Novel Intravascular Antiplatelet and Anticoagulant

Craige, Simon MSc*; Jouppila, Annukka MSc†,‡; Humphries, Bob BSc§; Lassila, Riitta MD, PhD‡,¶,‖

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Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 78(3):p 453-462, September 2021. | DOI: 10.1097/FJC.0000000000001080


Vascular intervention–induced platelet and coagulation activation is often managed with a combination of antiplatelets and anticoagulants, with evident benefits, but with a risk of systemic bleeding. Antiplatelet and anticoagulant (APAC) is a dual antiplatelet and anticoagulant heparin bioconjugate, which targets vascular injury sites to act as a local antithrombotic. We assessed the nonclinical safety and exposure of intravenously infused APAC in rats and cynomolgus monkeys by using single-day and 14-day repeat dose toxicology and pharmacodynamic markers. Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) was used as a functional surrogate of anticoagulant exposure of APAC. Routine clinical in-life observations were followed by clinical pathology and necropsy. The no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) in rats for the single APAC dose was 20 mg/kg and for the repeated administration was 10 mg/kg/d. Monkeys tolerated a single APAC dose of 10 mg/kg, although the red blood cell count reduced 16%–19% correlating with tissue hemorrhage at vein puncture and affected muscle sites during handling of the animals. However, after 2-week recovery, all clinical signs were normal. The single dose NOAEL exceeded 3 mg/kg. The repeat administration of 3–6 mg/kg/d of APAC was tolerated, but some clinical signs were observed. The NOAEL for repeated dosing was 0.5 mg/kg/d. APAC prolonged APTT dose-dependently in both species, returning to baseline after 1.5 (<10 mg/kg) or essentially by 6 hours also under repetitive dosing. The toxicology profile supports the safety of an intravenous APAC dose of 0.5 mg/kg/d for possible clinical applications. APTT is an acceptable indicator of the immediate systemic anticoagulation effect of APAC.

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