Invited Review ArticleToll-Like Receptors Contribute to Sex Differences in Blood Pressure RegulationDela Justina, Vanessa*; Giachini, Fernanda R. PhD*,†; Sullivan, Jennifer C. PhD‡; Webb, R. Clinton PhD‡Author Information *Graduate Program in Biological Sciences, Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia, Brazil; †Institute of Health Sciences and Health, Universidad Federal De Mato Grosso, Barra Do Garcas, Brazil; and ‡Department of Physiology, Medical College of Georgia at Augusta University, Augusta, GA. Reprints: Vanessa Dela Justina, Federal University of Goiás, Avenue Esperança, s/n-Chácaras de Recreio Samambaia, Goiânia-GO, Brazil 74690-900 (e-mail: email@example.com). Supported by the National Institutes of Health (NIH, PO1 HL-13604 to R.C.W.), Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de Mato Grosso (FAPEMAT, 0324552/2018 to F.R.G.), Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq, 305823/2015-9 to F.R.G.), Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES, 88881.190484/2018-01 to V.D.J.—scholarship), and Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de Goiás (FAPEG)-CAPES (to V.D.J. 201710267001159). The authors report no conflicts of interest. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology: September 2020 - Volume 76 - Issue 3 - p 255-266 doi: 10.1097/FJC.0000000000000869 Buy Metrics Abstract Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an important role in the innate immune system, and recently, they have been shown to be involved in the regulation of blood pressure. The incidence of hypertension is higher in men, and it increases in postmenopausal women. In fact, premenopausal women are protected from cardiovascular disease compared with age-matched men, and it is well established that this protective effect is lost with menopause. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this protection in women are unknown. Whether or not it could be related to differential activation of the innate immune system remains to be elucidated. This review focuses on (1) the differences between men and women in TLR activation and (2) whether TLR activation may influence the regulation of blood pressure in a sex-dependent manner. Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.