Novel MethodsTransduction Efficiency of Adenovirus Vectors in Endothelial Cells and Vascular Smooth Muscle CellsMokhashi, Nikita BS*; Choi, Robert Y. BS*; Cicalese, Stephanie BS*; Eguchi, Kunie BS*; Boyer, Michael J. BS*; Cooper, Hannah A. BS*; Kimura, Yayoi PhD†; Akiyama, Tomoko PhD†; Scalia, Rosario MD, PhD*; Rizzo, Victor PhD*; Eguchi, Satoru MD, PhD*Author Information *Cardiovascular Research Center, Lewis Katz School of Medicine, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA; and †Advanced Medical Research Center, Yokohama City University, Yokohama, Japan. Reprints: Satoru Eguchi, MD, PhD, Cardiovascular Research Center, Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University, 3500 N. Broad St, Philadelphia, PA 19140 (e-mail: email@example.com). Supported by the National Institute of Health grants, HL128324 (V.R. and S.E.), HL133248 (S.E.), DK111042 (R.S. and S.E.), F30HL146006 (H.A.C.), and F31HL146081 (M.J.B.) and American Heart Association grants, 16GRNT30130013 (V.R.), 16GRNT30410007 (S.E.), 19PRE34430037 (H.A.C), and 19PRE34430038 (M.J.B.). The authors report no conflicts of interest. N. Mokhashi and R. Y. Choi contributed equally. Received February 03, 2020 Accepted February 25, 2020 Online date: March 11, 2020 Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology: June 2020 - Volume 75 - Issue 6 - p 603-607 doi: 10.1097/FJC.0000000000000821 Buy Metrics Abstract Adenoviral vectors are useful tools in manipulating a gene of interest in vitro and in vivo, including in the vascular system. The transduction efficiencies of adenoviral vectors in vascular cells such as endothelial cells (ECs) and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are known to be lower than those in epithelial cell types. The effective entry for adenoviral vectors is primarily mediated through the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR), which has been shown to be expressed in both cell types. Cationic liposomes have been used to enhance adenovirus transduction efficiency in nonepithelial cells. Accordingly, the aim of this study is to obtain new information regarding differences in transduction efficiencies, cationic liposome sensitivity, and CAR expression between ECs and VSMCs. Using cultured rat aortic ECs and VSMCs, here, we have compared transduction efficiency of adenoviruses with or without inclusion of liposomes and CAR expression. A significant increase in basal transduction efficiency was observed in ECs compared with VSMCs. Cationic liposome polybrene enhanced transduction efficiency in VSMCs, whereas decreased efficiency was observed in ECs. Western blotting demonstrated expression of the CAR in ECs but not in VSMCs. Proteomic analysis and mouse aorta immunostaining further suggests significant expression of the CAR in ECs but not in VSMCs. In conclusion, adenoviruses can effectively transduce the gene of interest in aortic ECs likely because of abundant expression of the CAR, whereas cationic liposomes such as polybrene enhance the transduction efficiency in VSMCs lacking CAR expression. Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.