Stable angina affects a significant number of coronary artery disease patients, impairing their quality of life and worsening their prognosis. It manifests even despite a history of revascularization and is often poorly controlled with drug therapy. Comorbid conditions are frequently encountered in coronary artery disease patients, affecting their prognosis and rendering the diagnosis and management of angina more challenging. In this article, derived by an expert panel meeting, we attempt a practical approach to stable angina, focusing on symptomatic patients subjected to previous coronary revascularization or not suitable for revascularization and providing handy diagnostic and therapeutic algorithms and comorbidity-adjusted therapeutic approaches in accordance with existing evidence, current recommendations, and locally available therapeutic options.
*University of Cyprus Medical School, Nicosia, Cyprus;
†Second Department of Cardiology, Attikon University Hospital, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens Medical School, Athens, Greece;
‡First Department of Cardiology, Henry Dunant Hospital, Athens, Greece;
§Department of Cardiology, Larissa University Hospital, University of Larissa Medical School, Larissa, Greece;
¶First Department of Cardiology, AHEPA Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Medical School, Thessaloniki, Greece;
‖Department of Cardiology, Asklepeion General Hospital, Athens, Greece;
**Department of Cardiology, Heraklion University Hospital, University of Crete Medical School, Heraklion, Greece; and
††First Department of Cardiology, Hippokration General Hospital, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens Medical School, Athens, Greece.
Reprints: Dimitrios Farmakis, MD, University of Cyprus Medical School, Shakolas Educational Center for Clinical Medicine, Palaios Dromos Lefkosias Lemesou No. 215/6, 2029 Aglantzia, Nicosia, Cyprus (e-mail: email@example.com).
D. Farmakis has received speaker honoraria and consultation fees or travel grants from Menarini and Servier. G. Giannakoulas has participated in advisory boards or received lecture honoraria from Menarini and Servier. L. Poulimenos has participated in advisory boards and/or received speaker's honoraria from Menarini Hellas, Menarini International, and Berlin-Chemie. C. Vlachopoulos has received research grants, honoraria, and financial support for participation in medical congresses from Galenica, Menarini, and Servier. The remaining authors report no conflicts of interest.
Received April 02, 2019
Accepted June 04, 2019