Excessive proliferation, migration, and oxidative stress of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are key mechanisms involved in intima formation, which is the basic pathological process of in stent restenosis. This study aims at exploring the role of XAV939 in proliferation, migration, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation of VSMCs, and hence evaluating its effects on intima formation.
Carotid artery ligation models for C57BL/6 mice were established and gave them different intervention: saline, XAV939, Axin2 overexpression adenovirus, and negative control adenovirus. The intima formation was assayed by intima area and intima/media ratio. To investigate the underlying mechanisms, primary rat VSMCs were cultured and treated with XAV939 and platelet-derived growth factor-BB. EdU, direct cell counting, cell wound–healing assay, and flow cytometry were used to measure proliferation, migration, cell cycle, apoptosis, and ROS generation of VSMCs, respectively. By Western blot, we examined proliferating cell nuclear antigen, Cyclin D1, Cyclin E, p21, β-actin, JNK, phosphorylated JNK, Axin2 and β-catenin expression. Immunofluorescence staining and confocal microscopy were conducted to detect translocation of β-catenin.
XAV939 inhibited intima formation, which was exhibited by the loss of intima area and I/M ratio and attenuated proliferation, migration, and ROS generation, as well as promoted cell cycle arrest of VSMCs. Specifically, XAV939 inhibited Wnt pathway.
XAV939 attenuates intima formation because of its inhibition of proliferation, migration, and apoptosis of VSMCs through suppression of Wnt signaling pathway.