Drugs in the PipelineUpdate on the Protective Role of Regulatory T Cells in Myocardial Infarction: A Promising Therapy to Repair the HeartKaplan, Abdullah MD*; Altara, Raffaele PhD†; Eid, Ali*; Booz, George W. PhD†; Zouein, Fouad A. PhD*Author Information *Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon; and †Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Medicine, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS. Reprints: Fouad A. Zouein, PhD, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Riad El-Solh 1107, Beirut 2020, Lebanon (e-mail: [email protected]). The authors report no conflicts of interest. The review of this manuscript was supervised by Dr. Michael R. Rosen. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology: December 2016 - Volume 68 - Issue 6 - p 401-413 doi: 10.1097/FJC.0000000000000436 Buy Metrics Abstract Myocardial infarction (MI) remains one of the leading causes of heart failure development and death worldwide. To date, interventional and pharmacological therapies are effective in reducing the onset of heart failure and promoting survival. However, progressive maladaptive remodeling post-MI persists in a large fraction of patients resulting in poor prognosis. Immune cell responses and an inflammatory environment largely contribute to adverse cardiac remodeling post-MI. CD4+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) are known for their immunosuppressive capacity and have been successfully implemented in multiple preclinical studies of permanent and ischemia–reperfusion MI. In this review, we highlight the important cardioprotective role of Tregs at the cardiac tissue, cellular, and molecular level, as well as the most prominent pharmacological venues that could be used to exploit Tregs as a novel therapeutic intervention to lessen myocardial injury post-MI. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.