Alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) is an abundant plasma protein with neutrophil elastase-inhibiting activity, and AAT is available as a plasma-derived therapeutic (pAAT). In experimental myocardial infarction, pAAT reduced acute inflammatory injury because of ischemia–reperfusion. The aim of the present study was to assess the properties of a recombinant protein composed of human AAT fused to the human immunoglobulin (Ig) G1 Fc fragment (rhAAT-Fc) in experimental myocardial infarction.
Ten-week-old CD1 male mice underwent transient occlusion (30 minutes) of the left anterior coronary artery. rhAAT-Fc (2 mg/kg) or pAAT (60 mg/kg) were administered upon reperfusion. We used human plasma-derived Ig (2 mg/kg) or a matching volume of NaCl 0.9% as control solutions. After 24 hours, infarct size and caspase-1 activity were quantified. The left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was measured by echocardiography at 24 hours and 7 days. A variant of rhAAT-Fc lacking elastase inhibition activity, rhAAT-Fc[E−], was also tested.
The rhAAT-Fc induced a significant reduction in infarct size (P < 0.01 vs. all controls, P > 0.05 vs. pAAT). Caspase-1 activity was reduced to the same degree with rhAAT-Fc and pAAT (−70%; P < 0.05; P > 0.05 rhAAT-Fc vs. pAAT). The effects on infarct size after a single administration were reflected by preservation of LVEF at 24 hours and 7 days (all P < 0.05). rhAAT-Fc without elastase inhibiting activity, rhAAT-Fc[E−], conferred comparable effects on infarct size, caspase-1 activity, and LVEF (P > 0.2 vs. rhAAT-Fc).
The pAAT and recombinant human AAT-Fc reduce the acute myocardial inflammatory injury after ischemia–reperfusion in the mouse leading to preservation of viable myocardium and systolic function, independent on the effects on neutrophil elastase.