Original Articleβ2- and β1-Adrenoceptor Expression Exhibits a Common Regulatory Pattern With GRK2 and GRK5 in Human and Animal Models of Cardiovascular DiseasesMontó, Fermí MS*; Oliver, Eduardo PhD*; Vicente, Diana PhD*; Buendía, Francisco PhD†; Rueda, Joaquín PhD†; Agüero, Jaime MS†; Almenar, Luis PhD†; Valldecabres, Carmen PhD‡; Rovira, Eduardo PhD‡; Muedra, Vicente PhD‡; Noguera, María A. PhD*; Ivorra, María D. PhD*; D'Ocon, Pilar PhD*Author Information *Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Farmacia, Universitat de València, Valencia, Spain; †Servicio de Cardiología, Hospital La Fe, Valencia, Spain; and ‡Hospital de la Ribera, Alzira, Spain. Reprints: Pilar D'Ocon, PhD, Departamento de Farmacología, Facultat de Farmàcia, Universitat de València, Avda. Vicent Andrés Estelles s/n, Burjassot, 46100 València, Spain (e-mail: email@example.com). Supported by research grants from the Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Fondo de Investigaciones Sanitarias (FIS PI070509), and Generalitat Valenciana (GVACOMP07-182 and GVACOMP2009/261). E. Oliver and D. Vicente received a fellowship from the Spanish Ministry of Education and Science. The authors report no conflicts of interest. F. Montó and E. Oliver contributed equally to this work. Received April 21, 2015 Accepted July 16, 2015 Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology: November 2015 - Volume 66 - Issue 5 - p 478-486 doi: 10.1097/FJC.0000000000000299 Buy Metrics Abstract Abstract: To explore if genic expression of β1- or β2-adrenoceptors (ARs) exhibits a common regulatory pattern with G protein–coupled receptor kinase (GRK) 2, GRK3, or GRK5 expression, we determined messenger RNA levels for these genes in different tissues from human and animal models of cardiovascular disease. We measured genic expression by qRT polymerase chain reaction in the left and right ventricles or peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy (n = 21), hypertensive (n = 20), heart failure (n = 24), and heart transplanted patients (n = 17) or in left ventricle, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and kidney from spontaneously hypertensive rats or L-N-methyl-arginine–induced hypertensive rats and their respective controls (n = 4–5). In diseased versus healthy subjects and rats, parallel changes in messenger RNA levels of GRK2 and β2-AR or GRK5 and β1-AR were observed in each territory. Therefore, without excluding other regulatory mechanisms, the parallelism observed suggests a common regulatory pattern for the β1-AR/GRK5 and β2-AR/GRK2 genes, which is independent of cellular type or pathology. This highlights the need to focus not only on GRKs but also on β1- or β2-AR changes to completely understand the involvement of β-AR/GRK pathways in cardiovascular diseases. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.