Bisphosphonates have shown potential to inhibit atherosclerosis in animal experiments; however, whether bisphosphonates therapy lowers the risk of incidence of myocardial infarction (MI) is debated. We performed the meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis (TSA) to investigate the relation between bisphosphonates therapy and incident MI.
Pubmed and Embase databases were systematically searched in April 2015 to identify studies, which compared the incidence of MI in subjects receiving bisphosphonates with that in subjects not receiving the agents. Meta-analysis was conducted using random effects model in consideration of statistical heterogeneity between studies. Reliability of the results from meta-analysis was examined using TSA.
Six observational studies (n = 440261) and 3 randomized control trials (RCTs, n = 11,024) met the eligible criteria. In the pooled analysis of observational studies, bisphosphonates therapy was not associated with reduced risk of MI either using unadjusted estimates (relative risk 0.93, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.75–1.15) or estimates adjusted for confounding factors (hazard ratio 1.01, 95% CI, 0.84–1.21). Furthermore, hazard of incident MI did not differ between alendronate users and nonusers. TSA showed that evidence from observational studies firmly precluded the association between bisphosphonates and incident MI. Pooled analysis of RCTs also suggested no benefits of decrease in incident MI associated with bisphosphonates therapy (relative risk 1.05, 95% CI, 0.53–2.09). However, TSA demonstrated that evidence from RCTs was insufficient to draw a conclusion.
Despite the encouraging findings from animal studies, bisphosphonates therapy is not associated with reduced risk of MI.