Salusin-β, a multifunctional bioactive peptide, is considered as a promising candidate biomarker for predicting cardiovascular diseases. This study was designed to determine whether inhibition of salusin-β in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) delays the progression of hypertension and attenuates cardiac hypertrophy by restoring neurotransmitters and cytokines. Male Sprague Dawley rats were fed with a normal salt diet (NS, 0.3%) or a high salt diet (HS, 8%) for 8 weeks to induce hypertension. Then, these rats received bilateral PVN infusion of a specific salusin-β blocker, antisalusin-β IgG (SIgG), or control IgG (CIgG) for 2 weeks. HS rats exhibited higher mean arterial pressure and cardiac hypertrophy as indicated by increased whole heart weight/bodyweight ratio, whole heart weight/tibia length ratio, left ventricular weight/tibia length ratio, and messenger RNA levels of cardiac atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), and β-myosin heavy chain. Compared with NS rats, HS rats had higher levels of glutamate, norepinephrine, tyrosine hydroxylase, proinflammatory cytokines, and lower levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid, interleukin 10, and the 67-kDa isoform of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD67) in the PVN, and higher plasma levels of proinflammatory cytokines. Chronic PVN infusion of SIgG attenuated all these changes in HS rats. Our findings suggest that HS rats have an imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters, as well as an imbalance between proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the PVN; and chronic inhibition of salusin-β in the PVN restores neurotransmitters and cytokines in the PVN, thereby attenuating hypertensive responses and cardiac hypertrophy.