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Influence of Ethanol Extract of Ginkgo biloba Leaves on the Isolated Rat Heart Work and Mitochondria Functions

Baliutyte, Giedre PhD*; Baniene, Rasa PhD*,†; Gendviliene, Vida PhD; Martisiene, Irma PhD; Trumbeckaite, Sonata PhD*,§; Borutaite, Vilmante PhD*; Toleikis, Adolfas PhD*

Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology: May 2012 - Volume 59 - Issue 5 - p 450–457
doi: 10.1097/FJC.0b013e318249171d
Original Article

Abstract: In this study, we attempted to elucidate whether the effects of ethanol extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves (GBE) observed previously on isolated rat heart mitochondria may be realized in situ (in case of isolated heart perfused under normal conditions and under ischemia–reperfusion). We found that GBE at low concentrations (0.01, 0.05, and 0.1 μL/mL) does not affect the heart rate and parameters of electrocardiogram (ECG) but produces a small increase in the coronary flow. Higher concentration of GBE (0.2 and 0.3 μL/mL) diminished the heart rate, decreased the coronary flow, and tended to enhance the parameters of ECG. The contractility of isolated rat heart and mitochondrial nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide reduced form fluorescence decreased in a GBE concentration-dependent manner. Mitochondria isolated from hearts pre-perfused with GBE (0.05 μL/mL) for 20 minutes before nonflow global ischemia–reperfusion (45 min/15 min) showed higher respiratory rates with pyruvate + malate in state 2 and state 3, higher respiratory control index, and diminished H2O2 generation compared with untreated group. Higher GBE concentration, 0.4 μL/mL, had no effect on H2O2 generation and did not prevent the ischemia–reperfusion-induced decrease of pyruvate + malate oxidation in state 3 but even enhanced it. However, in the case of nonischemic perfusions, this GBE concentration had no significant effect on these parameters of respiratory functions of isolated heart mitochondria.

*Laboratory of Biochemistry, Institute of Neurosciences

Department of Biochemistry

Laboratory of Membrane Biophysics, Institute of Cardiology

§Department of Pharmacognosy, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania.

Reprints: Rasa Baniene, PhD, Institute of Neurosciences, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Eiveniu St 4, LT-50009 Kaunas, Lithuania (e-mail:

The authors report no conflicts of interest.

Received September 29, 2011

Accepted December 30, 2011

© 2012 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.