Invited Review ArticleOlive Oil and Cardiovascular HealthCovas, María-Isabel DPharm, PhD; Konstantinidou, Valentini MS; Fitó, Montserrat MD, PhDAuthor Information From the Cardiovascular Risk and Nutrition Research Group, Institut Municipal d′Investigació Mèdica (IMIM), CIBER de Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Barcelona, Spain. Received for publication June 29, 2009; accepted October 7, 2009. The authors report no conflicts of interest. Reprints: María-Isabel Covas, DPharm, PhD, Cardiovascular Risk and Nutrition Research Group, Institut Municipal d′Investigació Mèdica de Barcelona (IMIM), CIBER de Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Parc de Recerca Biomèdica de Barcelona (PRBB), Carrer Dr. Aiguader, 80, 08003 Barcelona, Spain (e-mail: email@example.com). Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology: December 2009 - Volume 54 - Issue 6 - p 477-482 doi: 10.1097/FJC.0b013e3181c5e7fd Buy Metrics Abstract The Mediterranean diet, in which olive oil is the primary source of fat, is associated with a low mortality for cardiovascular disease. Data concerning olive oil consumption and primary end points for cardiovascular disease are scarce. However, a large body of knowledge exists providing evidence of the benefits of olive oil consumption on secondary end points for the disease. Besides the classical benefits on the lipid profile provided by olive oil consumption compared with that of saturated fat, a broad spectrum of benefits on cardiovascular risk factors is now emerging associated with olive oil consumption. We review the state of the art concerning the knowledge of the most important biological and clinical effects related to olive oil and its minor components. The recent advances in human nutrigenomics associated with olive oil consumption will also be assessed. The wide range of benefits associated with olive oil consumption could contribute to explaining the low rate of cardiovascular mortality found in southern European-Mediterranean countries, in comparison with other westernized countries, despite a high prevalence of coronary heart disease risk factors. © 2009 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.