We have previously shown that the cardioprotective effect of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) is suppressed in hyperhomocysteinemic rat hearts. The present study investigated the effect of 2-chloro-N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CCPA), a selective adenosine-A1 receptor agonist, in hyperhomocysteinemia-induced attenuation of the cardioprotective effect of IPC.
Rats were administered L-methionine (1.7 g/kg/day po) for 8 weeks to produce hyperhomocysteinemia. Isolated Langendorff perfused normal and hyperhomocysteinemic rat hearts were subjected to 30-minute global ischemia, followed by a 120-minute reperfusion. Myocardial infarct size was assessed macroscopically using triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. Coronary effluent was analyzed for lactate dehydrogenase and CK-MB release to assess the extent of cardiac injury. The oxidative stress in the heart was assessed by measuring thiobarbituric acid reactive substance and reduced form of glutathione.
Ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) produced myocardial injury by increasing myocardial infarct size, elevating lactate dehydrogenase and CK-MB release in coronary effluent, decreasing coronary flow rate, and inducing oxidative stress in normal and hyperhomocysteinemic rat hearts. The hyperhomocysteinemic rat hearts showed enhanced I/R-induced myocardial injury with high oxidative stress. The IPC afforded cardioprotection against I/R-induced myocardial injury in normal rat hearts. However, IPC-mediated myocardial protection against I/R injury was abolished in hyperhomocysteinemic rat hearts. Administration of CCPA did not alter the cardioprotective effect of IPC in normal rat hearts, but its administration markedly restored the cardioprotective effect of IPC in hyperhomocysteinemic rat hearts.
It may be concluded that the activation of adenosine-A1 receptors using CCPA markedly restored the suppressed cardioprotective and infarct size-limiting effects of IPC in hyperhomocysteinemic rat hearts. Thus, the reduced availability of extracellular adenosine and impaired activation of adenosine-A1 receptors may be responsible for abolishing the cardioprotective potential of IPC against I/R-induced myocardial injury in hyperhomocysteinemic rat hearts.