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TRC4186, a Novel AGE-breaker, Improves Diabetic Cardiomyopathy and Nephropathy in Ob-ZSF1 Model of Type 2 Diabetes

Joshi, Deepa MBBS, PhD; Gupta, Ram MPharm; Dubey, Amita MVSc; Shiwalkar, Ajay MSc; Pathak, Padmaja MTech; Gupta, Ramesh C PhD; Chauthaiwale, Vijay PhD; Dutt, Chaitanya MD

Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology: July 2009 - Volume 54 - Issue 1 - p 72-81
doi: 10.1097/FJC.0b013e3181ac3a34
Original Article

Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) contribute significantly to diabetic complications, both macro- and microvascular. TRC4186 is an AGE-breaker that has been evaluated in vitro and in vivo and shown to reduce AGE burden. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of TRC4186 on diabetic cardiomyopathy and nephropathy in obese Zucker spontaneously hypertensive fatty rats (Ob-ZSF1), an animal model of diabetes with progressive cardiac and renal dysfunction. Ob-ZSF1 rats loaded with 0.5% salt were treated with TRC4186, 9 or 27 mg/kg twice daily intraperitoneally or vehicle control and monitored telemetrically throughout the study. Cardiac function was assessed terminally by Millar catheter. Markers of cardiac and renal dysfunction were measured and changes evaluated histopathologically. TRC4186 at 27 mg/kg prevented rise in blood pressure (BP) and also improved cardiac output (CO) secondary to better diastolic relaxation as well as systolic emptying in association with the reduction in afterload. At 9 mg/kg, CO was improved by compensatory increase in pre-load however afterload reduction was not adequate to allow efficient systolic emptying. Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression was reduced with treatment. Deterioration in renal function was retarded as evident from albumin to creatinine ratio and renal histopathology. TRC4186, an AGE-breaker, clearly preserved cardiac function and reduced the severity of renal dysfunction in Ob-ZSF1, an animal model with persistent severe hyperglycemia leading to diabetic heart failure and renal failure.

From the Torrent Research Centre, Torrent Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Gujarat, India.

Received for publication November 3, 2008; accepted April 3, 2009.

Supported by the Torrent Pharmaceutical Limited, Ahmedabad. The authors declare that they are employees of Torrent Pharmaceuticals Ltd., Ahmedabad, India.

The authors report no conflicts of interest.

Reprints: Dr. Chaitanya Dutt, MD, Torrent Research Centre, P.O. Bhat, Dist. Gandhinagar, 382428, Gujarat, India (e-mail:

© 2009 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.