The present study was designed to investigate the effect of the calcium-channel antagonist gallopamil on myocardial ischemia during percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA). Twenty-four adult patients with coronary artery disease and significant proximal stenosis of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) were randomly assigned to receive gallopamil or placebo under double-blind conditions. Patients with recent myocardial infarction, apparent collateralization of the LAD, myocardial failure, sinoatrial or atrioventricular block, severe hepatic disease, or renal failure were excluded from the study. PTCA was performed with use of at least two balloon inflations, each of 2 min in duration. Gallopamil (0.4 mg) or placebo (0.9% sodium chloride) was administered during the 10-min interval between the two inflations. For determination of myocardial lactate and hypoxanthine release, blood samples were taken simultaneously from the great cardiac vein and the femoral artery before and immediately after each inflation. Electrocardiogram changes were analyzed by measuring ST-segment deviations (80 ms after the J point) and maximal T-wave deviations of the leads I, II, III, and V2, V4, and V6. The most sensitive leads for identification of myocardial ischemia in the LAD area were V2 and V4. If compared to the first balloon inflation, the degree of ST-segment/T-wave changes induced by the second inflation was significantly reduced only in the presence of gallopamil. Furthermore, if compared to placebo, ischemia-induced lactate and hypoxanthine release was decreased in the presence of gallopamil. These results suggest that intracoronary application of gallopamil attenuates myocardial ischemia during PTCA.
Copyright © 1992 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.