Modulation of Neuroeffector Transmission: PDF OnlyRand M. J.; Majewski, H.; Wong-Dusting, H.; Story, D. F.; Loiacono, R. E.; Ziogas, J.Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology: 1987 - p S33-S44 Free Abstract Summary: Local mechanisms that regulate transmitter release at autonomic neuroeffector junctions may be classified into four main types: (a) Automodulation, involving a feedback effect of the transmitter on receptors associated with the prejunctional terminals resulting in a restraint on the facilitation of release that occurs when a train of nerve impulses invades the terminals. Changes in the composition of the transmitter, such as the presence of adrenaline as a cotransmitter together with noradrenaline, can result in increased facilitation of transmission. (b) Transneuronal modulation involving an effect of the transmitter released from terminals of one type on adjacent terminals of another type; thus, noradrenaline release may be inhibited by acetylcholine released from cholinergic nerve terminals adjacent to the noradrenergic terminals. (c) Transjunctional modulation involving a feedback effect on the prejunctional nerve terminals of one or more factors released from effector cells. Such substances include adenyl compounds (adenosine and/or ATP) and metabolites of arachidonic acid. (d) Hormonal modulation involving the action of blood-borne hormones or locally generated hormone-like substances on prejunctional terminals. Some of the substances involved in modulation may act in more than one way; thus, opioids may function as cotransmitters or as hormones, and adenyl compounds may be cotransmitters or be released from effector cells. The effects of exogenous drugs on the substances involved in the modulation of transmission and on the prejunctional receptors for these substances account for many anomalous actions of drugs used or proposed for use in therapeutics. Address correspondence and reprint requests to Dr. M. J. Rand at Department of Pharmacology, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3052, Australia. © Lippincott-Raven Publishers.