Animal models of disease provide the basis for important scientific inquiry of proof of concept, drug safety and efficacy, and exploration of the mechanistic and pathophysiological aspects of disease. Animals with either induced cardiac disease or spontaneously occurring cardiac disease are test beds for new cardiovascular therapies or interventions. Biomarkers in animal models can help characterize disease, stratify risk of morbidity and mortality, and serve as surrogate endpoints. Biomarkers identify important similarities and differences between the animal model and the human condition. The future of biomarkers and animal models includes cross-organ investigation using multiorgan multimarker panels. Industry will use animal models and biomarkers to help shorten the time from drug discovery to market. Biomarker development has outpaced their acceptance in clinical use and carefully designed clinical studies are needed to achieve their maximum potential.
Department of Clinical Studies, Philadelphia School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
Correspondence to Mark A. Oyama, DVM, Department of Clinical Studies Philadelphia, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 3900 Delancey St, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA Tel: +1 215 898 8889; fax: +1 215 573 6232; e-mail: email@example.com
Received September 14, 2013
Accepted January 7, 2014