Share this article on:

Hypertension and bradykinin: a dangerous affair?

Katsi, Vasilikia; Katsimichas, Themistoklisb; Pittaras, Andreasb; Grassos, Charalambosb; Katsimichas, Alexandrosa; Tousoulis, Dimitriosb; Stefanadis, Christodoulosb; Kallikazaros, Ioannisa

Cardiovascular Endocrinology: June 2012 - Volume 1 - Issue 2 - p 24–30
doi: 10.1097/XCE.0b013e328357a94c
Review article

Hypertension is a disorder of the heart and vessels that affects almost a billion individuals worldwide and is considered the most important preventable factor for premature death. Overall, 95% of all cases are deemed as primary or essential hypertension, where no cause can be identified. Essential hypertension has a complex pathophysiology, involving derailment of endocrine and sympathetic mechanisms, still not completely understood. The kallikrein–kinin system comprises a collection of autacoid peptides such as bradykinin that exert multiple physiologic actions and are of strategic importance for the regulation of blood pressure. Scientific research suggests that its impairment contributes toward the development of hypertension and hypertension-induced end-organ damage.

aDepartment of Cardiology, Hippokration Hospital

bFirst University Department of Cardiology, Hippokration Hospital, University of Athens Medical School, Athens, Greece

Correspondence to Themistoklis Katsimichas, Hypertension Unit, First University Department of Cardiology, Hippokration Hospital, V. Sofias 108, 11527 Athens, Greece Tel: +30 697 967 5858; e-mail:

Received April 9, 2012

Accepted May 27, 2012

© 2012Wolters Kluwer Health Lippincott Williams Wilkins