Invited Review ArticleHyperlipidemia in Children and AdolescentsMichaud, Liana DO1; Sharedalal, Parija MD2; Seplowe, Matthew DO1; Rosenzveig, Akiva BS3; Frishman, William H. MD1; Aronow, Wilbert S. MD2 Author Information 1 Department of Medicine, Westchester Medical Center and New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY 2 Department of Cardiology, Westchester Medical Center and New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY 3 New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY None of the authors have any conflicts of interest to disclose Address for correspondence Wilbert S. Aronow, MD, FACC, FAHA Director of Cardiology Research, Department of Cardiology, Westchester Medical Center, and Professor of Medicine, New York Medical College Macy Pavilion, Room 141 Valhalla, NY 10595 Telephone number: (914)-493-5311; fax number: (914)-235-6274 Cardiology in Review: June 14, 2022 - Volume - Issue - 10.1097/CRD.0000000000000465 doi: 10.1097/CRD.0000000000000465 Buy PAP Metrics Abstract While coronary artery disease (CAD) is thought to be a disease of adulthood, atherosclerosis can originate in childhood and adolescence. There is a paucity of randomized controlled treatment trials regarding dyslipidemia amongst the younger population. However, it is apparent that childhood dyslipidemia is associated with an earlier onset of CAD. Most recent guidelines by the American College of Cardiology (ACC) and American Heart Association (AHA) focus on lifestyle modification and lifetime risk of atherosclerotic disease, as well as adequate screening measures. Genetic factors, environmental contributors such as pollution, obesity linked to poor nutrition and sedentary lifestyles are shown to be associated with increased lipid levels and early CAD amongst children and adolescents. Familial Hyperlipidemia (FH) is one of the most prevalent genetic diseases and can affect 1 in 250 individuals. A multi-modal treatment plan is most effective for children and adolescents with dyslipidemia including lifestyle changes (a modified diet and moderate physical activity), and pharmacologic intervention. The mainstay of pharmacologic treatment for childhood dyslipidemia is similar to that of adults. Statins are the most widely used medications. Newer medications have proven integral in treatment for genetic dyslipidemias including evolocumab and evinacumab. Copyright © 2022 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.