Review ArticleCardiac Rehabilitation Programs: Content, Effectiveness, Limitations, and Gaps in KnowledgeEconomidou, Eleftheria C. MD*; Lianopoulou, Barbara BSc, MA†; Soteriades, Soteris MD, MSc‡; Soteriades, Elpidoforos S. MD, SM, ScD§,¶ Author Information From the *Faculty of Medicine, School of Health Sciences, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece †Management Organization Unit of Development Programs, Human Resource Management, Ministry of Development and Investments, Republic of Greece, Athens, Greece ‡Hull Royal Infirmary, Hull University Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Hull, United Kingdom §Healthcare Management Program, School of Economics and Management, Open University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus ¶Environmental and Occupational Medicine and Epidemiology (EOME), Department of Environmental Health, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA. Disclosure: The authors have no conflicts of interest to report. E.S.S. involved in conceptualization and methodology. E.C.E., B.L., and S.S. involved in data curation and writing—original draft preparation. E.S.S. involved in supervision. All authors involved in writing—reviewing and editing. Correspondence: Eleftheria C. Economidou, MD, Faculty of Medicine, School of Health Sciences, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece, 11 Sevastoupoleos Ave., 2035 Strovolos, Nicosia, Cyprus. E-mail: [email protected]. Cardiology in Review: November 21, 2022 - Volume - Issue - 10.1097/CRD.0000000000000492 doi: 10.1097/CRD.0000000000000492 Buy PAP Metrics Abstract Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) constitutes a valuable therapeutic approach for patients with a broad spectrum of cardiovascular diseases facilitating the development and maintenance of a desirable level of physical, social, and psychological functioning following the onset of cardiovascular disease. Nowadays, cardiac rehabilitation programs emphasize the use of a multidisciplinary approach. The current review aims at presenting the state-of-the-art knowledge on the indications of patients entering cardiac rehabilitation programs, including their core components, duration, and effectiveness. Following a careful review of the international literature, we conclude that there are significant differences between the most commonly cited international CR guidelines as well as additional limitations and gaps in knowledge. Despite the benefits associated with CR and despite their widespread acceptance, CR referrals and program attendance remains low, while many questions have not been so far addressed through scientific research. Overall, the findings of our study suggest a critical need for the development of robust and evidence-based standardized CR interventions to increase their use and effectiveness throughout the world. Copyright © 2022 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.