Review ArticlesComprehensive Review of Cardiovascular Diseases, Diabetes, and Hypercholesterolemia in LebanonJelwan, Yara A. MD*; Asbeutah, Abdul Aziz A. MD†; Welty, Francine K. MD, PhD†Author Information From the *Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Lebanese American University Medical Center, Rizk Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon †Division of Cardiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA. Disclosure: The authors have no conflicts of interest to report. Correspondence: Francine K. Welty, MD, PhD, Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 330 Brookline Avenue, SL 423, Boston, MA 02215. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Cardiology in Review: March/April 2020 - Volume 28 - Issue 2 - p 73-83 doi: 10.1097/CRD.0000000000000290 Buy Metrics Abstract The Middle East and North Africa regions, including Lebanon, have recently witnessed rapid urbanization and modernization over the last couple of decades that has led to a dramatic transformation affecting lifestyle and diet. The World Health Organization reports that the leading cause of death in Lebanon is due to cardiovascular disease (CVD) at 47% of all-cause mortality. Over the last 30 years, especially the last 10, the population of Lebanon has changed dramatically due to the effect of wars in the region and refugees seeking asylum. With a population of around 4.5 million and a relatively high rate of consanguinity in Lebanon, a variety of novel mutations have been discovered explaining several familial causes of hypercholesterolemia, diabetes mellitus, congenital heart disease, and cardiomyopathies. Due to the Syrian civil war, 1.5 million Syrian refugees now reside in Lebanon in either low-income housing or tented settlements. A National Institutes of Health study is examining diabetes and CVD in Syrian refugees in comparison to native Lebanese. We provide the first review of CVD in Lebanon in its metabolic component including coronary artery disease and its risk factors, mainly hyperlipidemia and diabetes mellitus, and its structural component, including congenital heart disease, valvular heart disease, cardiomyopathies, and heart failure. The knowledge in this review has been compiled to guide clinicians and assist researchers in efforts to recognize risk factors for disease, improve delivery of health care, and prevent and treat CVDs in Lebanon, both for the native Lebanese and Syrian refugees. Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.