Review ArticlesParathyroid Hormone and Cardiac Electrophysiology A ReviewPalmeri, Nicholas Osborn MD*; Walker, Marcella Donovan MD†Author Information From the *Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA †Division of Endocrinology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY. Disclosure: The authors have no conflicts of interest to report. Correspondence: Nicholas Osborn Palmeri, MD, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Cardiology in Review: July/August 2019 - Volume 27 - Issue 4 - p 182-188 doi: 10.1097/CRD.0000000000000250 Buy Metrics Abstract Calcium has long been known to be essential to cardiac electrical activity. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is the main regulator of serum calcium and is central to calcium homeostasis. Although there are significant data linking parathyroid disease states with changes in cardiac electrophysiology, most data have focused on how PTH modulates serum calcium to produce these effects. Close scrutiny of early literature demonstrates that the relationship between PTH and electrocardiographic changes is not straightforward, and numerous studies have linked PTH to arrhythmia. Basic science research has demonstrated that there is a basis for a direct role of PTH on cardiac electrophysiology outside of its effect on serum calcium. Later studies in secondary hyperparathyroidism indicate that PTH disturbances could have important implications for broad categories of patients with cardiovascular disease. The current review summarizes the existing literature on PTH and electrophysiology based on clinical and basic science studies of various parathyroid states, providing directions for future study. Copyright © 2019 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.